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Instrument Support Level 2
Instrument Support Level

Instrument Support Level 2

Manufacturer & Model

Daily Facility Charge


35 GHz Copernicus Cloud Radar

The Copernicus radar is a fully-coherent Ka-band dual-polarisation pulse-compression Doppler radar designed for observations of cloud microphysics and climatology. It employs a crystal-controlled reference and frequency synthesizers to generate all necessary RF and system timing signals. The transmitter is based on a flexible programmable waveform generator driving a high-power pulsed millimetre-wave amplifier tube. The receiver is a dual-channel, double-conversion superheterodyne with separate IF chains for simultaneous co-polar and cross-polar measurements. A dual-polarization antenna and a fast, latching circulator-based, transmit polarization switch complete the design. The radar provides real-time measurement and display of the full Doppler spectrum, the spectral moments and the polarimetric parameters. Time-series data are also available for more detailed off-line analysis. 


Radar type  Fully-coherent, dual-polarisation, pulse-compression pulsed Doppler radar. Flexible waveform generation and processing. 
Operating frequency  34.960 GHz 
Transmit polarisation  Horizontal and vertical, pulse-to-pulse switching 
Receive polarisation  Simultaneous co-polar and cross-polar 
System noise figure  6 dB including duplexer / miscellaneous losses 
Transmit power  1.5 kW peak pulse 
Range resolution  75 m, typical 
Maximum number of range-gates per ray  500 
Number of pulses averaged per ray  5000, typical 
Maximum unambiguous range  30 km, typical 
Maximum unambiguous velocity  5.36 m / s, typical 


Antenna type  Prime-focus fed parabolic dish 
Diameter  2.4 m 
Gain  55.9 dBi 
Beamwidth  0.25° (FWHM; -3 dB, 1-way) 
First sidelobe level  -25 dB (1-way, estimated) 
Scan rate  Fixed-pointing at any desired azimuth / elevation 
Far-field distance  1343 m


Receiver type  Dual-channel, double-conversion super-heterodyne, 60 MHz IF 
Noise figure  4.5 dB excluding duplexing/miscellaneous losses 
IF type  Dual-channel, logarithmic detector and linear amplifiers with I/Q detectors 
IF bandwidth  10 MHz 
Video bandwidth  2.5 MHz 
Dynamic range  72 dB 


Transmitter type  Extended interaction klystron amplifier (EIKA) 
Peak power  1.5 kW 
Pulse-width  0.5 μs, typical 
Pulse repetition frequency  5000 Hz, typical 
Pulse-coding  Un-coded rectangular pulse, BPSK or LFM 


Data acquisition/
processing system 
PC plus custom ADC/timing cards 
Number of channels  4 
Number of bits per channel  12 
Sampling rate  2.5 MHz 
System timing/clock frequency generation  Derived from crystal-controlled reference 
Algorithms used  FFT-based processing; full Doppler spectrum and 0th, 1st and 2nd moments 
Real-time control/
display system 
Local colour monitor and web-page 
Archive data format  netCDF